# first law of thermodynamics conceptual questions

(Note: In an operating diesel engine, the compression is not quasi-static.). 35. (b) Heat Q is slowly added to A so that it expands and B is compressed until the pressure of both gases is 3.0 atm. 94. The state of 30 moles of steam in a cylinder is changed in a cyclic manner from a-b-c-a, where the pressure and volume of the states are: a (30 atm, 20 L), b (50 atm, 20 L), and c (50 atm, 45 L). Register now! Consider 0.40 mol of dilute carbon dioxide at a pressure of 0.50 atm and a volume of 50 L. What is the internal energy of the gas? It is denoted by ΔGo. 27. what is centripetal vs centrifugal in terms of circular motion? Is it possible for γ to be smaller than unity? A gas in a cylindrical closed container is adiabatically and quasi-statically expanded from a state A (3 MPa, 2 L) to a stateB with volume of 6 L along the path \(\displaystyle 1.8pV=constant.\). Finally, the gas is heated isochorically to return to the initial state (step 4). What is the source of energy needed to do this work? An ideal monatomic gas at a pressure of \(\displaystyle .0×10^5N/m^2\) and a temperature of 300 K undergoes a quasi-static isobaric expansion from \(\displaystyle 2.0×10^3\) to \(\displaystyle 4.0×10^3cm^3.\). If the gases of the preceding problem are initially at 300 K, what are their internal energies after they absorb the heat? What is the kinetic energy of either proton when they are 6.92 nm apart? Raise Pressure => Raise Temperature and Lower Volume, Raise Temperature => Raise Pressure and Raise Volume, Lower Volume => Raise Temperature and Raise Pressure. The movement of the wall is controlled so that the wall moves in infinitesimal quasi-static steps. Assume each change takes place along the line connecting the initial and final states in the pV plane. 66. When the pressure from the outside is decreased while keeping the temperature the same as the room temperature, the volume of the gas doubles. Calculate the final volume of one mole of an ideal gas initially at 0, Define Gibbs Free energy and hence Derive the Relationship between Equilibrium Constant and Gibbs free energy and hence Calculate ΔG. Pressure and volume measurements of a dilute gas undergoing a quasi-static adiabatic expansion are shown below. If so, what is the source of the energy needed to do this work? Use the fact that the compression of B is adiabatic to determine the final volume of both gases. Find the work done in the quasi-static processes shown below. 54. (d) Find the change in internal energy of the gas in the process. (d) Find the change in internal energy in the process. (d) Find the change in the internal energy of the gas in the process. (c) Find the net amount of heat flow in the steam over the course of one cycle. 58. (a) Find the change in the internal energy of the gas. If γ=1.4, what is the ratio \(\displaystyle V_1/V_2\)? (b) How much heat is absorbed by the gas in this process? When a gas expands along AB (see below), it does 500 J of work and absorbs 250 J of heat. Five moles of a monatomic ideal gas in a cylinder at 27°C is expanded isothermally from a volume of 5 L to 10 L. (a) What is the change in internal energy? But from PV = NRT if volume is cut in half and pressure is doubled then temp is constant. 9. Instead, air in a cylinder is compressed adiabatically to a temperature above the ignition temperature of the fuel; at the point of maximum compression, the fuel is injected into the cylinder.
A dilute gas is stored in the left chamber of a container whose walls are perfectly insulating (see below), and the right chamber is evacuated. (b) Find the temperature of the gas in the initial state. (d) What is the change in internal energy of the gas? Negative work is the thing that increases. A great deal of effort, time, and money has been spent in the quest for a so-called perpetual-motion machine, which is defined as a hypothetical machine that operates or produces useful work indefinitely and/or a hypothetical machine that produces more work or energy than it consumes. What is its final temperature? 77. Decrease of temperature (Pressure decreases) implies decrease of internal energy. (a) Calculate the work done on the gas along the closed path shown below. 89. (b) The gas then expands adiabatically along BC and does 400 J of work. (b) Find the heat exchanged by the gas and indicate whether the gas takes in or gives up heat. When a gas expands isothermally, it does work. 18. So, I don't exactly know what that has to do with anything. Show these steps on a pV diagram and determine from your graph the net work done by the gas. 47. 90. How do you think about the answers? ? 38. An ideal monatomic gas at 300 K expands adiabatically and reversibly to twice its volume. The initial and final volumes during the process were 2 L and 1.5 L, respectively. Does adding heat to a system always increase its internal energy? Since there is a change in volume, work is done. This says that dQ will be a negative value. The required equation is 76.
What is the average mechanical energy of the atoms of an ideal monatomic gas at 300 K? Show that a temperature scale under an isochoric process can be established with this gas and is identical to that of an ideal gas. How is the pressure of the gas changed? What is the internal energy of 6.00 mol of an ideal monatomic gas at 200°C? A dilute gas expands quasi-statically to three times its initial volume. The process is continued quasi-statically until the final pressure is 4/3 of the initial pressure \(\displaystyle p_1\). (b) If the process is carried out in the opposite direction, what is the work done on the gas? If 1.0 g of gas A has the same internal energy as 0.10 g of gas B, what are, (a) the ratio of the number of moles of each gas and. Since there is no change in volume, no work is done. How would time flow if we stayed absolutely still? Calculate the work done by the gas. (a) Find the work done in each of the processes AB, BC, AD, and DC. The temperature of an ideal monatomic gas rises by 8.0 K. What is the change in the internal energy of 1 mol of the gas at constant volume? Basic Physical Quantities And Their Units, Conductors Insulators and Semi Conductors. After the equilibrium is reached, the pressure on the piston is lowered so that the gas expands at constant temperature. 13. 83. 55. 46. Which is greater for water in this temperature region, \(\displaystyle C_p\) or \(\displaystyle C_V\) ? (c) Compare the change in the internal energy when the AB process occurs adiabatically with the AB change through the two-step process on the ACB path. When a gas undergoes a quasi-static isobaric change in volume from 10.0 to 2.0 L, 15 J of work from an external source are required. Explain, in terms of the first law of thermodynamics, why or why not such a machine is likely to be constructed.

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