This includes the largest and fifth-largest cities in the nation New York and Philadelphia. Between 6,000 and 7,000 years ago, the rate of submergence began to slow, and the Chesapeake Bay took on its characteristic drowned-river-valley shoreline pattern. Lake Michigan is approximately 300 miles long and averages 75 miles across, covering 22,300 square miles — which is equal to the combined areas of the states of Maryland, Massachusetts and Delaware! Warmer, less dense freshwater flows near the surface of the Bay from the north to the south and into the Atlantic Ocean. About 150,000 new people move into the Bay watershed each year. Because they contribute only a fraction of the water produced by the western rivers, the eastern half of the Bay is saltier, slower moving, more given to marshes, and more productive of saltwater plants such as submerged aquatic vegetation. The mouth of the Chesapeake Bay is about 12 miles wide between its northern point near Cape Charles, VA, and its southern point close to Cape Henry, VA. At its widest point, just south of the mouth of the Potomac River, it is 30 miles (50 km) wide. The crater created by the impact is the largest known crater in the United States, at about 80 miles (130 km) in diameter. The appearance of each of these geographically distinct regions is a direct result of the rocks underneath. The diverted river systems progressively joined the next river to the south and excavated a new channel. The other half is freshwater that drains into the Bay from its enormous watershed.Salinity is the primary physical and ecological variable that changes through the length of the Bay. During this period, the lower Susquehanna River basin started to fill up with seawater. These cliffs, generally known as Calvert Cliffs, are famous for their fossils, especially fossilized shark teeth, which are commonly found washed up on the beaches next to the cliffs. Rising sea levels at the end of the last ice age, about 10,000 years ago, flooded the Susquehanna River valley. In the Delaware Bay, the tidal change is about six feet, but in Trenton, it is about ten feet.
Deep - Watersheds of the Inland Bays It serves Philadelphia to the north by means of a channel in the Delaware River that is 32 feet (10 m) deep and 600 feet (180 m) wide. There is a bacteria TMDLs for the Assawoman Bay Watershed which requires a 40% reduction in freshwater nonpoint bacteria, 23% reduction in marine nonpoint bacteria, and a cap on point source bacteria at a geometric mean concentration level of 35 CFU enterococcus/100mL until all point sources are eliminated as required in the 1998 Inland Bays Nutrient TMDL Regulation. Erosion, transportation, and deposition of sediments are constantly changing the Bay's shorelines. Delaware Bay is the estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the northeast seaboard of the United States. The Delaware Bay is bordered by six counties: Sussex, Kent, and New Castle in Delaware, along with Cape May, Cumberland, and Salem in New Jersey. When the sea level rose, water covered the Coastal Plain, depositing marine sediments to form a type of sand that geologists call the Chesapeake Group. Major rivers emptying into the Bay include the James, York, Rappahannock, Potomac, Patuxent, Patapsco, and Susquehanna from the west and the Pocomoke, Wicomico, Nanticoke, Choptank, and Chester from the east. Denser, colder, and saltier ocean water flows near the bottom of the channel from the ocean up into the Bay. Besides the Delaware, it is fed by numerous smaller rivers and streams, including (from north to south) the Christina River, Appoquinimink River, Leipsic River, Smyrna River, St. Jones River, Mispillion River, Broadkill River and Murderkill Rivers on the Delaware side, and the Salem River, Cohansey River, and Maurice Rivers on the New Jersey side. More than 100,000 streams and rivers thread through the watershed and eventually flow into the Bay.
The modern Chesapeake Bay watershed is framed by mountains on the north and west and the lower elevations on the east and south that formed from the slow collision of the African and North American tectonic plates.
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