osage orange thorn infection

[10][27] A neglected hedge will become fruit-bearing. Although insect deterrent compounds have been extracted from hedge apples in laboratory studies, these do not provide a logical explanation about why hedge apples would work as claimed. The long, stiff pointy leaves make this the perfect plant for home security. In the hands of a child, the fruit can become dangerous weapons. (Moraceae) and the Origin and Early Spread of “Hedge Apple” Folklore,", Murphy, Serena, Virginia Mitchell, Jessa Thurman, Charli N. Davis, Mattew D. Moran, Jessica Bonumwezi, Sophie Katz, Jennifer L. Penner, and Matthew D. Moran. [9] The common name Osage derives from Osage Native Americans from whom young plants were first obtained, as told in the notes of Meriwether Lewis in 1804. [10] Meriwether Lewis was told that the people of the Osage Nation, "So much … esteem the wood of this tree for the purpose of making their bows, that they travel many hundreds of miles in quest of it. [14], The trees were named bois d'arc (or "bow-wood"),[3] by early French settlers who observed the wood being used for war clubs and bow-making by Native Americans. Barlow, Connie. The milky juice present in the stems and fruit of the Osage-orange may cause irritation to the skin. [17][21] An analysis of phylogeny based on chloroplast and nuclear genes indicates that a clade containing Maclura pomifera probably diverged from other Maclura clades during the Oligocene, coincident with divergence of mammoth/mastodon and sloth clades, suggesting these mammals may have been seed dispersers of Maclura pomifera. All we did was took a machete to the stalk of the plant, pulled back a couple of the leaves and we stuck it in the ground. In autumn they turn bright yellow. Questions abound. The use of hedge apples as a pest solution is communicated as a folk tale complete with testimonials about apparent success. Ovaries are superior, ovate, compressed, green, and crowned by a long slender style covered with white stigmatic hairs. Written by: Off The Grid News Home Defense, How-To 0.WP-PrintIcon{margin-bottom:-3px} Print This Article. Other cultivated members of this family include the mulberry and fig. Branches contain a yellow pith, and are armed with stout, straight, axillary spines. It commonly grows 30 to 40 feet tall, occasionally as tall as 50 to 60 feet. The mature multiple fruit's size and general appearance resembles a large, yellow-green orange, 10 to 13 centimetres (4–5 in) in diameter, with a roughened and tuberculated surface. The Osage-orange is native to a small area in eastern Texas, southeastern Oklahoma, and southwestern Arkansas. The yellow-green fruit are commonly call "hedge apples." They are produced by the Osage-orange (Maclura pomifera). "hedge apple") as a hedge to exclude free-range livestock from vegetable gardens and corn fields. When creating a fortress of solitude, most people think about building a fence to keep unwanted visitors out. [29] Primary components of fresh fruit include pectin (46%), resin (17%), fat (5%), and sugar (before hydrolysis, 5%). Many berry plants like gooseberries, blackberries, and raspberries all produce delicious fruit that are high in antioxidants, but more importantly– thorns. (Note: This referred to Pierre Chouteau, a fur trader from Saint Louis.) Leaves are arranged alternately in a slender growing shoot 90 to 120 centimetres (3–4 ft) long. [4] It is a member of the mulberry family, Moraceae. 2 (2001): 14-21. Schneid.) It typically has a short trunk and a rounded or irregular crown. (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University | PoliciesState & National Extension Partners, by Richard Jauron, Department of Horticulture, Like us at Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic, Like us at Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology. Osage Orange is a fast-growing tree that was used in place of barbed wire during the early 19th century. Under severe pruning, the hedge apple sprouted abundant adventitous shoots from its base; as these shoots grew, they became interwoven and formed a dense, thorny barrier hedge. It is remarkably free from insect predators and fungal diseases. [3] John Bradbury, a Scottish botanist who had traveled the interior United States extensively in the early 19th century, reported that a bow made of Osage timber could be traded for a horse and a blanket. The best fitting model for syncarp size evolution indicated an increase in both syncarp size and the rate of syncarp size evolution in the Osage orange lineage. [6] The seeds are oblong. The American Midland Naturalist 180, no. The compound fruit is a syncarp of numerous small drupes, in which the carpels (ovaries) have grown together. Another home security tree that has the added benefit of food are citrus trees. The twigs are buff to orange-brown and are armed with 1/2-inch long spines. The "hedge apples" are not an important source of food for wildlife as most birds and animals find the fruit unpalatable. Links to this article are strongly encouraged, and this article may be republished without further permission if published as written and if credit is given to the author, Horticulture and Home Pest News, and Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. They are a nuisance in the home landscape. Production of woodwind instruments and waterfowl game calls are common uses for the wood. It also shrinks or swells very little compared to the wood of other trees. [26] Research has shown that compounds extracted from the fruit, when concentrated, may repel insects. [10] Additionally, a yellow-orange dye can be extracted from the wood, which can be used as a substitute for fustic and aniline dyes. While the fruit have been suspected of being poisonous to livestock, studies conducted in several states have been negative. All natural fertilizer helps your plants grow like crazy. The wood of the Osage-orange is golden yellow or bright orange when first cut, but turns brown on exposure. Barbed wire wasn’t invented until the 1880’s. [22] An equine species that became extinct at the same time also has been suggested as the plant's original dispersal agent because modern horses and other livestock will sometimes eat the fruit. [3] It was one of the primary trees used in President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's "Great Plains Shelterbelt" WPA project, which was launched in 1934 as an ambitious plan to modify weather and prevent soil erosion in the Great Plains states, and by 1942 resulted in the planting of 30,233 shelterbelts containing 220 million trees that stretched for 18,600 miles (29,900 km). My husband pulled the tip out of my finger but now it hurts a lot, is … Fences tend to draw curiosity, while plants seem to go unnoticed. Osage Orange Hedges. Before then, many people planted a row of Osage orange as a living fence or hedge. That is until someone tries to walk through them! Are they good for anything?

Some plants can provide an extra “layer” for extreme home security. [10], American settlers used the Osage orange (i.e. They feature a hairy, four-lobed calyx; the four stamens are inserted opposite the lobes of calyx, on the margin of a thin disk. Other common plant names include hedge apple, bodark, bois d'arc, and bowwood. It commonly grows 30 to 40 feet tall, occasionally as tall as 50 to 60 feet. Although the flowering is dioecious, the pistillate tree when isolated will still bear large oranges, perfect to the sight but lacking the seeds.

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