list the accessory organs of the digestive system

Gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells in the fundic glands in the gastric mucosa of the stomach, is an acidic lipase, in contrast with the alkaline pancreatic lipase. Emptying of the small intestine is complete after an average of 8.6 hours.

A series of contractions will help propel ingested food and drink down the intestinal tract safely. This is accomplished by periodic contractions (peristalsis). During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus. The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are not part of the digestive tract, but they have a role in digestive activities and are considered accessory organs. These glands are termed Von Ebner's glands which have also been shown to have another function in the secretion of histatins which offer an early defense (outside of the immune system) against microbes in food, when it makes contact with these glands on the tongue tissue. This part describes an S-shaped curve in the pelvis then continues downwards to become the rectum. Ulcerative coliltis is the most common of the IBDs[46], Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of the functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Most of the blood is returned to the liver via the portal venous system for further processing and detoxification before returning to the systemic circulation via the hepatic veins.

The human digestive system consists of the alimentary tract and accessory organs. There are diagnostic tools mostly involving the ingestion of barium sulphate to investigate disorders of the GI tract. It also breaks down the genetic material of worn-out cells of the body to form uric acid which is excreted in the urine.

[32] The colon mainly serves as a site for the fermentation of digestible matter by the gut flora. The first receptacle for this chyme is the duodenal bulb.

The pharynx is divided for descriptive purposes into three parts, the. The human digestive system consists of the. Saliva, which is made in the salivary glands, is passed through ducts and into the mouth. This disease can have complications if an inflamed diverticulum bursts and infection sets in. Some of these are released in response to the production of CKK in the duodenum.

The liver is also the detox center of the body, and it works to remove byproducts that are produced by alcoholic beverages and medications.

[38] These neurons are collected into two plexuses - the myenteric (or Auerbach's) plexus that lies between the longitudinal and the smooth muscle layers, and the submucosal (or Meissner's) plexus that lies between the circular smooth muscle layer and the mucosa.[39][40][41].

The esophagus serves to pass food and liquids from the mouth down to the stomach. The digestive tract runs from the mouth to the anus, in one long, continuous tube. The stomach is divided into four parts. The undigested food is then pushed to the colon. 95% of absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine. The third pair are the sublingual glands located underneath the tongue and their secretion is mainly mucous with a small percentage of saliva. Mucin is viscous, clear, and clinging. © 2020 Microbe Notes. Hall, J. E. 1. Each gland has a parotid duct opening into the mouth at the level of the second upper molar tooth. [52], "Digestive system" and "alimentary system" redirect here.

Pancreatic juice drains through the main pancreatic duct (duct of Wirsung) into the common bile duct and then into the small intestine. Performs limited absorption of water, alcohol and some lipid-soluble drugs. p. 287. Underlying the mucous membrane in the mouth is a thin layer of smooth muscle tissue and the loose connection to the membrane gives it its great elasticity. Designed with ❤️ by Sagar Aryal. Crohn's disease is a common chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can affect any part of the GI tract,[45] but it mostly starts in the terminal ileum.

The pancreas is both an exocrine and an endocrine gland. The lower esophageal sphincter is a muscular sphincter surrounding the lower part of the esophagus. (11th edition). Stimulation of the larynx by ingested matter produces a strong cough reflex in order to protect the lungs.

[1], The largest part of the GI tract is the colon or large intestine.

The palate is hard at the front of the mouth since the overlying mucosa is covering a plate of bone; it is softer and more pliable at the back being made of muscle and connective tissue, and it can move to swallow food and liquids. Bile also helps in the absorption of vitamin K from the diet.

Figure 1. Together, the above organs, with their respective functions, help keep our body working.

[16] This is seen to be key in preventing infections of the salivary glands, importantly that of parotitis.

Bile flows out of the liver into the right and left hepatic ducts, into the common hepatic ducts, and toward the small intestine to help with digestion and the absorption of fats. The breaking down into micelles creates a much larger surface area for the pancreatic enzyme, lipase to work on.

Even though these organs are not a part of the digestive system, without them the process of digestion would become almost impossible. These accessory organs of digestion play key roles in the digestive process.

Hydrogen ions secreted from the inner lining of the gallbladder keep the bile acidic enough to prevent hardening.

The tongue is attached to the floor of the mouth by a ligamentous band called the frenum[5] and this gives it great mobility for the manipulation of food (and speech); the range of manipulation is optimally controlled by the action of several muscles and limited in its external range by the stretch of the frenum. The process of digestion has three stages. d. Pancreas—located behind the stomach, attached to the duodenum. Non-specific defense against microbes — provided by hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and salivary glands. Malabsorption can have many causes ranging from infection, to enzyme deficiencies such as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

[24], Bile produced by the liver is made up of water (97%), bile salts, mucus and pigments, 1% fats and inorganic salts. Saliva is a clear liquid in our mouths that we don't think much about but it contains many substances important to digestion and, in fact, starts the work of breaking down food. Overview of the Accessory Digestive Organs, Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. It is lined throughout with mucous membrane, consisting of stratified squamous epithelium containing small mucus-secreting glands. The small intestine is subdivided into the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum. Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body. [48] It can often be asymptomatic, but as often can be indicated by a variety of symptoms. People with Type 2 diabetes also need insulin because their body is either resistant to insulin or their pancreas does not respond as it should. The digestive system is supplied by the celiac artery. Diseases and conditions that can affect the salivary glands include infections, obstructions, cancer, mumps and Sjogren's syndrome.

These include the various cells of the gastric glands, taste cells, pancreatic duct cells, enterocytes and microfold cells.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are not part of the digestive tract, but they have a role in digestive activities and are considered accessory organs. It dissolves certain molecules so that food can be tasted. Food that is chewed in the oral cavity then swallowed ends up in the stomach where it is further digested so its nutrients can be absorbed in the small intestine.

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